Ivanova N.S. Differentiation of Forest Vegetation after Clear-Cuttings in the Ural Montains. Modern Applied Science. 2014. V.8. № 6. DOI: 10.5539/mas.v8n6p195

The purpose of this paper is to study dynamics patterns of the Ural (Russia) forest ecosystems to allow their biodiversity conservation in the context of anthropogenic impact. One of our objectives was to test the hypothesis that external factors cause splitting-up of natural forests and their replacement by a range of successional series. Our research was conducted in the Southern Ural Mountains. We studied differentiation of the forest vegetation after clear-cuttings in the most typical environments: on smooth slopes 1–2 degrees steep with deep soils, at 400–500 m above the sea level. Tree stand, understory, and grass layer were studied within a number of sampling plots (0.5 ha). To measure biomass of grass and shrub layer laid 10-15 subplots (0.5x0.5m) within each sampling area. The obtained data was used in Correspondence Analysis (CA). For numerical analysis we used R package vegan. We found that clear-cuttings in the Southern Ural Mountains cause profound transformation of the forest vegetation structure and in all the layers. Patterns of regeneration-age dynamics differ both in tree stand and herbaceous layer: within a single natural forest, a whole range of alternative successional series are formed – spruce, fir, birch, and aspen forests (short-term, long-term, and stable-term secondary), each having specific productivity of herbaceous layer. All the studied after-cutting forests (after-cutting (secondary) 50–70-year-old spruce and fir forests, short-term secondary birch forests (age of 5–100), long-term secondary birch forests (age of 20–100), and 8–110-year-old stable-term secondary aspen forests) differ from natural dark coniferous forests in the structure of herbaceous biomass and dynamic patterns. The differences between natural and after-cutting forests remain for over 100 years.

Ivanova N.S., Zolotova E.S. Development of Forest Typology in Russia // International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2014. 5 (2): 298-303. DOI:10.5958/0976-4038.2014.00572.7 Available at:

Forest typology holds the central position in modern forestry. We give an overview of research on forest typology in Russia. Forest typology in Russia actively developed and improved with respect to requests forestry throughout the entire period of its existence. It remains the necessary basis for preserving the biodiversity of land ecosystems and ensuring sustainable forest management amid the growing anthropogenic impact and climate change. The birth of scientific forest typology is associated with the name of G.F. Morozov. A biogeocoenotic approach to forest classification was offered by V.N. Sukachev. V.N. Sukachev developed classifications for boreal forests which had been little affected by economic activity. The biogeocoenotic approach proved effective there. However, when literally applied to commercial forests, the biogeocoenotic approach sometimes failed to deliver satisfying results. The exponential shrinkage of natural forests and the increasing share of dynamic secondary growth brought about the need to reflect the time-related forest changes in classifications. The origins of the genetic approach can be found in the writings of G.F. Morozov. The first satisfactory geo-genetic forest classification was built by B.A. Ivashkevich. B.P. Kolesnikov provided the theoretical grounding and main postulates for the approach. According to B.P. Kolesnikov, a geographical and genetic classification means a classification based on the forest origin and evolution patterns which takes account of all the forest ecosystem stages and can be used to predict their future changes. Currently forest typology develops as an interdisciplinary science. It integrates forestry, geobotanics, forest taxation, soil sciences, biogeography, geology, and landscape ecology. A new methodology is being developed. It is a synthesis of forest ecology and synergetic. It uncovers new reserves for the forest science development.

Ivanova N.S. Recovery of Tree Stand After Clear-cutting in the Ural Mountains. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2014. 5 (1): 90-92. DOI:10.5958/j.0976-4038.5.1.017 Available at:

For the mountain forests of the Middle Urals (Russia) recovery of tree stand after clear-cuttings was studied.  Two options of the drained habitats have been studied: steep slopes of the southern exposition with small stony soils and the lower parts of gentle slopes with thick soils. For the description of biomass dynamics of a pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a birches (Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh.), their interference in the course of formation of the forest stand were constructed on the basis of systems the connected logistic equations of the model of their coexistence. We have given mathematical description of two alternative ecodynamic series of forest vegetation formation in clear-cutting: regeneration of the initial forests (after cuttings in cowberry shrub pine forests) and the formation of long-derivative grass-reed grass birch forests (after cuttings in grass pine forests).

Ivanova N.S., Zolotova E.S., Petrova I.V. Nuovo approccio interdisciplinare allo studio degli ecosistemiforestali. Italian Science Review. 2013; 9. PP. 97-100. Available at URL:

Ivanova N.S,  Zolotova E.S. Model of forest restoration. Population Dynamics: Analysis, Modelling, Forecast. 2013 (2). № 2. P. 50-60

For Zauralsky (Trans-Ural) hilly piedmont province (Middle Ural) restoration of forest vegetation after clear-cuttings to forest stands of 80-160 years old was studied. Two options of the drained habitats have been studied: steep slopes of the southern exposition with small stony soils and the lower parts of gentle slopes with thick soils. Complex researches have been conducted. Restoration of the wood and grass- dwarf shrub layers has been studied. Biomass in absolutely dry condition was used as the integrated characteristic of the role of plants in the community. For the description of density dynamics (biomass) of a pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and a birches (Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh.), their interference in the course of formation of the forest stand were constructed on the basis of systems the connected logistic equations of the model of their coexistence. Within the mathematical theory of catastrophes of René Tom the nonlinear model of formation of the tree layer structure on clear-cuttings depending on two managing parameters, such as thickness of soil (soil depth) and the intensity of the development of the grass- dwarf shrub layer. The satisfactory agreement between theory and experimental data was revealed. Objective quantitative methods for assessing the sustainability of forest restoration have been proposed. They are based on the definition of the type of the potential function, the calculation of their susceptibility and the distance from the separatrix position.

NS Ivanova, ES Zolotov Biodiversity of the natural forest in the Zauralskaya hilly piedmont province. Modern problems of science and education. - 2013. - № 1; URL:

We studied of the natural forests structure in the Zauralsky hilly piedmont province (Middle Urals). Different moistening conditions (fresh, occasionally dry; stable-fresh; fresh, occasionally wet; wet, wet occasionally) are presented in the ecological profile. Complex forest geobotanical researches were carried out. Full profile soil cuts were put. The characteristic of 12 types of the natural forests vegetation, morphology, physical and chemical properties of soils was given. We determined the position of forest types Zauralskaya hilly piedmont province, was selected on the basis of principles of genetic typology, in the classification scheme developed according to «International code of the phytosociological nomenclature». We revealed that the great value for the formation of specific structure of the forests has ecotone effect. Forest types were formed at the junction of the two subzonal groups of vegetation: boreal forest of taiga types of the class Vaccinio-Piceetea and gemiboreal light-coniferous herbal forests of the class Brachypodio Pinnati-Betuletea. In the waterlogged conditions the species structure was influenced by intrazonal not wood types of vegetation: swamps and water meadows. The landscapes diversity, the moisture regime, soils and complex ecotone effect resulted in a high diversity of forest types and their specific structure.

N.S. Ivanova Divergence and Convergence of Forest Vegetation in the Urals. Scientific enquiry in the contemporary world: theoretical basiсs and innovative approach. FL, USA, L&L Publishing, 2012. P. 59-63.

We studied patterns of natural and anthropogenic dynamics of forest vegetation in the mountains of South and Middle Urals (Russia). Detailed quantitative study was carried out. Disturbance treatments included wildfire, plantations forest and natural regeneration after harvest forest. We determined abundance, diversity and biomass of vascular plants in natural dark- and light coniferous forests and secondary birch and aspen forests. Statistical analysis performed by traditional and nonlinear dynamics methods. Three hypotheses have been formulated and tested: 1 – the divergence of development lines of forest ecosystems, depending on the type and intensity of the external action; 2 – the descent of the different development lines within a native forest type; 3 – the leveling of differences between the various forest ecosystems under the influence of similar violations. The work initiates the development of a new interdisciplinary field of science, which is based on an understanding of non-linearity, adaptability, the fractal and network organization of ecological systems.

E.S. Zolotova, N.S. Ivanova, I.V. Petrova. From the sources of forest typology to the modern research. Scientific enquiry in the contemporary world: theoretical basiсs and innovative approach. FL, USA, L&L Publishing, 2012. P. 52-56.

We carried out the analysis of formation and development of forest typology and its new modern directions. Results of own complex geobotanical researches on studying of ecotopological features of structure and dynamics of forest vegetation, their interrelations with soil and hydrological characteristics in heterogeneous mountain conditions of the Zauralsky hilly piedmont province (the Middle Urals, Russia) are presented.

Lankin Yu.P., Ivanova N.S. Fundamental paradigm of modeling the biosphere and its ecosystems. Естественные науки, 2012. № 3. С. 96–104. URL:

The necessity of the development of a new scientific paradigm for modeling and forecasting of the behavior of the biosphere and ecosystems is grounded. It is proposed to solve the existing methodological problems by reflecting the fundamental properties of living systems (attractiveness, adaptability, fractality, and network organization) in the theory and the model used. The importance of the development of an information concept based on network models is discussed. It is shown that the concepts of three types should be combined: substrate, energy, and information. Based on the proposed solutions, the possibility of significant simplification of building the models of complex systems by means of the simulation of gradual formalization of knowledge is considered.

Lankin Yu.P., Ivanova N.S., Baskanova T. F.  Fundamentals of the theory of modeling the biosphere and its ecosystems. Естественные науки, 2012. № 3. С. 104–112. URL:

Difficulties of formalizing the description of such complex natural systems as the biosphere and its ecosystems are discussed. The existing problems of mathematical ecology are considered. Generality of the properties of ecosystems is demonstrated on the basis of the fundamental properties of living systems: attractiveness, adaptability, fractality, and network organization. Examples of the mathematical methods for modeling ecosystems on the basis of the Concept of Adaptive Self-Organization of Complex Systems are given. Similarity of the mathematical structures of the models of adaptive networks and the structure of interconnected networks of organisms, species, and processes and cycles in ecosystems is demonstrated. A wide range of possibilities of the self-organizing adaptive networks that reflect substrate, energy, and information aspects of organization of complex natural systems is revealed.

Ivanova N.S., Zolotova E.S. Vegetation and soil differentiation within the limits of ecotope on the Middle Ural region. European Journal of Natural History. 2011. №1. P. 44-46.URL:

Transformation of vegetation and soil, which takes place in dark-coniferous forests under the action of clear fellings, fires and haymaking in dominating forest conditions of the mountains of the Middle Urals (at the bottom of draining gentle slopes), was studied. It was found that strong anthropogenic effects lead to appearance of a wide spectrum of vegetation communities within a single forest ecotope (one type of radical forests). For a long time these vegetation communities differ by the structure of all vegetation layers, conditions of soil formation, and, consequently, by the direction and intensity of restoration processes